A video taken of 2 white rhino bulls fighting. Young bulls are normally seen in pairs, but become solitary at around 12 years of age when they would try to find a territory of their own. Territories would be demarcated by dung middens and by spraying urine. They spray urine backwards onto bushes and also create scrape-markings with their hind legs that will become impregnated with urine. His scent will be laid out wherever his feet touch the ground and the damper soil that becomes exposed by scraping might also make the scent last longer. This is also achieved by kicking his dung open. A male intruder or a subordinate male will be tolerated as long as he behaves submissively by standing with ears back and tail up while roaring and squealing. In return a bull that leaves his territory will be allowed to pass unmolested as long as he behaves unmolested and shows no interest in the cows. He will also not spray urine or kick dung open in another bull’s territory.
Cows are usually accompanied by a calf. Cows without calves are normally found in small groups. Cows can move freely in and out of the bull territories, but when a cow is in heat a territorial bull will try to keep her inside his area. Only territory holders gets a chance to mate and rights to territories can thus only be taken by combat. Preliminaries to fighting are deliberate approaches and charges. Battles can escalate from horn fencing to jabbing with the horns and heavy shoulder ramming and hooking of an opponents body. Serious injury and death mostly occur when there is a female in oestrous present. The skin over a rhinos shoulders is 25mm thick to help reinforce the area against blows from an opponents horn.